Double testing – converging or diverging models in testing Martin Jansson

I have experienced that many test leads, managers and project managers are worried about something called double testing. In short, it is the idea that some tester is testing the same thing as another tester. The term double testing might be a local term, but then you know it by another name with same properties and confusion.

I think the idea of double testing is about what models we use in testing. More precisely our mental models on our test approach/perspective on testing, system boundaries, system parts, levels of testing, terminology in testing, ideas of test coverage, usage of test techniques, test idea sources, test planning techniques and so on.

I will elaborate around some of the models that we use in testing and its relevance towards the idea of double testing.

Black Box Testing vs. White Box Testing

The box metaphor is used as one way to visualize how we perceive the system while testing. By talking about either black box or white box (and in some cases grey box) we can determine whether if we are able to see inside the solution or not, but also if we are able to take advantage of any of the artifacts that the system produces for us to understand the health of the system.

I have seen testers to choose a black box approach even if they had access to valuable information about the system. They had the possibility to do grey box testing that would have been a lot more enriched; still they selected the black box approach because that is what the customer will see.

Let us assume that we have the strategy of splitting up between black box, white box or grey box approach to testing the system as a way to ensure that no double testing is done.  The box is a model of the system that shows different levels of transparency of the system. It tells something about the approach to testing, not the system itself. It might tell us about how we ask questions to the system and how we monitor the system while we try to get answers. If we choose to ignore information available from the system then I conclude that we will limit what kind of questions we ask of the system. With more information available, we probably ask more questions. If we ask fewer questions and base them on less amount of information, then we indirectly increase the chance of double testing.

Unit testing vs. Integration testing vs. System testing

If we instead break the system into different parts where we also show the integration between these units, we will use the model of unit, integration and system to visualize what we test. This is by nature a simplified model of the system. The boundaries of the system and its sub parts is unknown or at least vague, therefore the representation of this model is in theory only.

If we ask questions that have to do with a unit such as a class or function in the code, you still might want to repeat the question when you have extended or expanded the context. You ask the same question but the environment around it is altered and therefore it is not the same test, thus not a double test. The same goes for when you wish to ask questions higher up in the system. A unit test is also limited by factors such as performance and speed. This makes the unit test limit its focus on what it will test and what it can guarantee, in theory.

A unit test, an integration test and a system test have different objectives when testing. This should mean that if each of those types of tests follows those objectives, then they would not be subject to double testing because they give different types of information and in some cases interpreted differently by different stakeholders.

But I question if it is effective to split the work between different teams by that of unit, integration and system testing as a general solution to avoid double testing.

Testing vs. Checking

A check asks a binary question, while testing asks an open-ended question.

If one team limit the test effort to perform only checks, while another team most probably does  a bit of both they might avoid double testing, but instead have some double checking. Based on that we are asking different types of questions would it really be possible that we performed double testing?

Charters vs. Test cases/Test scripts

If we compare two setups: one team that use test specifications with detailed test scripts with testing planned before hand that execute the planned tests no matter what was actually seen, another team use charters and missions with a general outline where to go testing, but it was up to the tester to explore and document what was actually experienced. This testing adapted to what was seen before them, following the fire or smoke leading them to possibly valuable information. We could say that the first team would be able to review each others test cases and scripts to avoid double testing, but on the other hand they would perhaps miss out on important information. The second team using charters would have a hard time not to guarantee double testing, but it is a bigger chance that they would find important, valuable information. Still, if several teams are testing the same thing using charters they would probably follow the same fire or smoke, thus increased change of performing double testing. But then again, they could just avoid that by letting the team members do collaborative testing and share the charter.

Scripted test approach vs. Exploratory test approach

The teams following the scripted approach to testing has a tendency to be more hierarchical, where the decision paths take longer time and where there is more time spent on things that team members think are meaningless. Since changing decisions take a longer time, there is also a bigger chance that you continue with a planned task even if it might result in double testing. For a more empowered approach such as the exploratory, the team members have more freedom but also more responsibility to do meaningful tasks. The chance to do double testing would in that case be less likely. Still, this is how I perceive and have experienced the impact of the two approaches.

Regression testing

There are many different strategies for conducting a regression test. The traditional one is to rerun the test specification for areas that worked previously. If several teams are using similar test specifications and use the system in the same way, then there is an increased chance to perform double testing. If you instead use a check-driven test strategy for regression testing, then you will have an idea of areas/features you will check to see that they work to some extent and continue to test around those areas. The chance for double testing is less likely because of the pointer to where to go rather than how to test. Depending on how you set this up the chance for double testing will vary.

Smoke tests

A smoke test should be focused on what is important for their sub-system or for the solution as a whole. Each test in the smoke test probably focuses on critical areas that must work for the sub-system or solution to be considered worthwhile to test further. The most obvious functional areas or features are probably just checked and the more obscure areas are probably tested. A smoke test is usually quite shallow in depth and should go quickly. If several teams run the same set of smoke tests they will probably perform double checking, but less likely for double testing. Still, a smoke test is cheap as far as time spent. The information gathered can still be worthwhile even if double testing is done.

Definition of the system, sub-system or solution

Each team probably sees the solution or system differently from the other teams. They probably see the depth and complexity in their own sub-system more than in other teams. They might be aware of all connections to other sub-systems or they might not. When creating a model of the solution that consists of systems of systems of systems there is a big chance that not a single tester sees the solution and its sub-systems in the same manner. If we do not see the same system before us, how could any of us perform double testing? We base our testing on our mental models and if they differ it is less likely we perform double testing.

Ideas of test coverage

If a team focus on test coverage by only covering all the explicit requirements, then their test coverage will be a model based on explicit requirements only. They will miss out on a plethora of other sources for test ideas which then could have a test coverage model for each new source. Those teams that look in other areas will have different coverage models. If the idea of test coverage differ from team to team then the likelihood for double testing is not great either.

Configuration of the system

If each team uses the exact same system or solution simultaneously, then there is a chance for double testing or seeing the same things. But if teams have configured the system or sub-system differently then they will probably not perform double testing since they use a different system or a different setup of the solution as a whole. If the system can be configured and setup in many different ways, then it can be tested in many different ways which means less likelihood for double testing.

Platform of the system

If each team uses the same kind of platform for the system or sub-system, then they might be double testing. If teams use different platforms then the chance for double testing is less likely. If the platform itself consists of systems and sub-systems then the configuration and definition of the system is applied to determine the chance of double testing.

Static or dynamic system

If the system or sub-system is static, that nothing changes over time then it is more likely that teams are performing double testing. If the system is dynamic such as that log files are created from usage or that that data storage grow over time, then the chance for double testing less likely. Tests performed early in the week might be different from the ones performed later in the week. Does it matter than you run tests during the night or day? If it does, then it is less likely that you perform double testing.

System usage

When test teams use a system or sub-system, do they use it as a certain persona or role that is applicable for their sub-system or the solution as a whole? If you use a persona that is applicable to your sub-system alone, then it is less likely that you perform double testing. If the roles or personas are applicable to the solution as a whole you might still have an entry point or focus that is most related to your sub-system, then you will probably not perform double testing because the information that is related to your team will be different from the information that is related to another team.

Transparency of the system

If test teams are testing the solution or sub-systems without being interested in collecting information from the system itself on its health, then you will probably perform double testing more likely.

Obvious bugs

If all the teams start testing at the same time they are prone to see the most obvious bugs that fall on them as they start testing. The obvious bugs barely need a conscious thought from the testers to recognize that there is something wrong. I would say that these are bugs that found before real testing is performed. Independently of what approach to testing the teams have the obvious bugs would be found, unless you have testers who do not see bugs at all. If all teams report the same obvious bugs you have some other problem than double testing.

Re-testing of bugs

Some use retesting of bugs as part of a regression test strategy. They might select a certain severity or priority of the bugs that they wish to use as a guide when performing regression testing on a new build. When test teams are using the same bugs to retest then there is an increased chance that they will perform double testing, but only if they follow the bugs repro steps in a strict way. If they instead use it as a guide, change the test data or the order of things and then they are probably not performing double testing.

Isolation of testing

There is an old, smelly idea that testers should not be affected by others, that testers need to work in isolation. This is related to the different schools of testing, how the role of testing is perceived and what testers should do. If you are vigilant about the idea that your test team need to be isolated from other teams, then there is an increased chance that you will perform double testing because you are not able to communicate about your test ideas.


I think the likelihood that double testing is performed is very small. If you are a decision maker that worries on double testing, you can stop unless your test teams are context-oblivious. Instead, worry more on if your teams are good and effective at sharing information. Information sharing from planning, testing and reporting is important to avoid covering the same areas with tests. Still, you might look at the same information differently and might have different objectives and will probably act differently on the information gathered.

Information shared through 400 page test specifications is harder to understand if there are areas that are subject to double testing. So find new ways in planning and preparing for testing such as using models, mind maps or test proposals.


[…] Double testing – converging or diverging models in testing Written by: Martin Jansson […]

Mario Gonzalez February 5th, 2013

Hi Martin,

In my experience, every test team has a different definition for “double testing.” I’m interested to know what your definition is for the term is. I’ve seen teams use the term “duplicate testing” to mean “testing the same thing” or even to simply mean “very similar,” but of course the definitions are always very ambiguous.

The teams following the scripted approach to testing has a tendency to be more hierarchical, where the decision paths take longer time and where there is more time spent on things that team members think are meaningless.

This is interesting. Can your elaborate more on that point? I think I get the kernel of what you mean, but i’m not completely sure.

If teams use different platforms then the chance for double testing is less likely.

Not generally. To avoid duplication, development teams typically separate platform-specific from platform-independent code. In such systems, the platform-specific code is very thin compared to the platform-independent code. This means that testing on different platforms does not decrease the likelihood of duplicate testing.

Instead, worry more on if your teams are good and effective at sharing information.

I completely agree. Test teams that do not share information become “siloed” and are prone to have test escapes that could have been avoided.

Interesting post! It certainly leaves me wondering about the actual relationships between test duplication and the different test approaches/aspects.

Mario G.

Henrik Emilsson February 8th, 2013


I have thought a lot lately about the difference between Black Box and White Box testing. And I often hear or see the difference as “whether or not you have knowledge about the code” (similar to what you described above).

Here is my take on an explanation:
Black Box Software Testing – When you worry about what happens outside the box.
White Box Software Testing – When you worry about what’s going on inside the box.
– Sometimes you know about the code when doing Black Box Software Testing.
– Sometimes you know about the outside when doing White Box Software Testing.
What matters is that there might be a difference in scope, question formulation, and information objectives.

So, yes there will be some overlapping if looking at code coverage. But the tests (or question formulations) give different answers, so the outcome might mean very different things.

Martin Jansson February 9th, 2013

Thanks for your comments.

If every team has a different definition, it will vary how likely it is they are doing double testing between teams. I would guess they need to talk more to each to understand what they mean.

As I see it, if you have a scripted approach it is more likely that you have the traditional roles with more administration. For a group of testers you might have a test designer, test lead, test strategist, test manager etc. The testers with a exploratory test approach are more empowered, thus taking all the aspects of testing into their roles. This cuts down on decision paths.

Even if the development teams separate platform-specific from platform-independent code, they can never be 100% sure that the independent is not affected by the separate. The platform also changes how we model the system, thus how we ask questions.

Interesting ideas.

[…] • Martin Jansson взвешивает на весах различные подходы к тестированию приложений и анализирует степень их перекрытия. […]

Mario Gonzalez March 4th, 2013

Hi Martin,

I’d like to share with you a series of blog posts about duplicate tests inspired by your post and based on material from my upcoming book on the theory of testing.

My upcoming book is based on my experience as a tester at IBM as well as personal research I’ve been conducting for several years.

I hope you find it interesting. I’m always up for constructive comments and discussions.

Mario G.
Ortask founder and chief engineer.